The iconic management theorist Peter Drucker made famous the notion that “culture eats strategy for breakfast.” In other words, the culture of your company is correlated more closely to your company’s ultimate value and success than its strategy. There is a human factor at every level of every company. No matter how well-researched, educated, informed, and detailed, the strategy of a business ultimately depends on the people executing it. In a word, we call that “culture.”
Every company has a distinct culture that makes it unique. Culture is what sets them apart, and it is often what creates loyal, long-term employees. In a merger, acquisition, or buyout transaction where two or more businesses combine, there can be a culture clash that impacts the ultimate success of the transaction. That is why, during the M&A process, it is critical to determine the cultural alignment between the buyer, the seller, their employees, customers, suppliers, and stakeholders more broadly.
When cultural compatibility is neglected, it can lead to significant challenges and hinder the post-merger integration process. Evaluating cultural compatibility is of great importance, including assessing values and management styles, as cultural misalignment can create significant obstacles in successful M&A integration.
Evaluating Cultural Compatibility: Before embarking on an M&A transaction, how does one assess the cultural compatibility between the buyer and the seller? What exactly is cultural alignment? It is the similarity or harmony between the two organizations’ cultures, including shared values, beliefs, norms, and working styles. Evaluating cultural compatibility requires a comprehensive understanding of both organizations’ cultures, which can be achieved through in-depth research, employee surveys, interviews, and site visits.
Assessing Values, Management Styles, and Workforce: Cultural alignment goes beyond surface-level observations and involves the fundamental values and management styles prevalent in both organizations. Below are just a few questions companies should be asking as they look at whether a merger or acquisition will result in a culture fit:
- Are their core values and principles compatible with ours?
- Do they have similar approaches to decision-making, communication, and collaboration?
- Do they have a good rate of employee retention?
- Could you see yourself or your own employees working there?
- Are decisions based on transparent, performance-based, and objective metrics, or are they based on opaque or subjective metrics?
- Does information flow freely within the company, or is it closely guarded by senior management? Arguments can be made for both the “open-box” and “closed-box” systems, but merging two companies with polar opposite information-sharing cultures is destined to be challenging for each side to adapt to the other.
Assessing these factors helps identify potential areas of synergy and areas that may require adaptation or compromise. Additionally, understanding the workforce’s cultural dynamics is essential, as employee attitudes and expectations play a significant role in successful integration.
Cultural Misalignment Can Create Integration Challenges: When there is cultural misalignment, it can lead to significant challenges during the post-merger integration process. Some of the most common issues we see include:
- Employee Resistance: In an M&A transaction, employee retention and morale are critical. When there is a clash of values and working styles, employees may resist change, leading to decreased morale, productivity, and engagement. Integration efforts can be derailed by the lack of employee buy-in or an exodus of key employees.
- Communication Breakdowns: When two companies engage in wildly different communication styles and practices, misunderstandings, and misinterpretations will no doubt follow. Effective communication is crucial to aligning goals, managing expectations, and building trust between employees from both organizations.
- Leadership and Management Conflicts: If the acquiring entity’s leadership style differs significantly from the acquired company, conflicts can very easily arise. Varied management practices, decision-making approaches, and levels of autonomy can cause friction, impeding smooth integration.
- Cultural Dilution: When companies attempt to assimilate cultures too quickly, there is a risk of losing the unique aspects of each organization’s culture. This can lead to a loss of identity, decreased employee satisfaction, and talent attrition. Remember, your unique culture is so much of what attracts and keeps your employees. If that is lost, your employees could soon follow.
Strategies for Successful Cultural Integration: To overcome cultural misalignment and ensure successful integration, consider the following strategies:
- Cultural Due Diligence: When you are conducting your due diligence, you should also conduct a thorough cultural assessment. This can help to identify potential challenges and opportunities and should inform decision-making throughout the integration process.
- Leadership Alignment: Make sure you have an open dialogue and collaboration between leaders from both organizations from the start. By doing this, you can align strategic objectives, values, and management styles. Encourage leaders to act as role models for cultural integration and openly communicate the benefits of the merger to employees.
- Communication and Employee Engagement: During a merger or acquisition, communication with employees is key. Without it, rumors start, and panic can set in. Develop a robust communication plan that keeps employees informed about integration progress, addresses concerns, and highlights the shared vision and values. Encourage employee participation in cross-functional teams and integration initiatives to foster collaboration and a sense of ownership.
- Cultural Integration Roadmap: Create a structured integration plan that outlines specific steps and milestones for cultural integration. This roadmap should include activities such as cultural training, cross-cultural workshops, and initiatives that promote cultural exchange and understanding.
Cultural alignment is essential to successful mergers and acquisitions. Failure to access cultural compatibility and proactively address any potential misalignments can lead to significant issues when it is time to integrate the two companies. However, when there is an emphasis on communication, employee engagement, and leadership alignment, companies can overcome challenges, preserve the strengths of each culture, and create a harmonious and thriving merged entity.